Hip Fracture
Hip Fractures picture album Several pictures illustrating different types of hip fractures, percutaneous screw fixation, intramedullary hip screw fixation, and hemiarthroplasty of the hip.
Hip Fractures video 3D animation demonstrating femoral neck and intertrochanteric hip fractures and common surgeries used to address them. Hip Fracture X-rays picture album Several radiographic images depicting hip fractures, including post-operative images.
The term "hip fracture" typically refers to a fracture of the proximal femur.  A hip fracture may be a fracture of the femoral head or neck or an intertrochanteric fracture. Surgery is indicated for all types of proximal femur fractures as long as the patient is a surgical candidate.  Femoral neck fractures are described as being subcapital, transcervical, or basicervical.  The Garden classification system is commonly referenced.  Garden type 1 fractures are fractures of the femoral neck in which the neck is impacted into the head.  They are more stable than more displaced fractures, but still require surgical fixation. Garden type 2 fractures are nondisplaced.  Types 1 and 2 fractures can often be treated with percutaneous screw fixation. Garden type 3 fractures are angulated, but without significant translation of the rest of the femur.  In Garden type 4 fractures, the main body of the femur is completely broken away from the head and shifts proximally. Garden types 3 and 4 require a more invasive surgery.  They are frequently treated, especially in the elderly, with hemiarthroplasty. Fractures across the greater and lesser trochanters are known as intertrochanteric hip fractures.  They are often treated with a sliding hip screw or intramedullary hip screw.